Design Definition and Design Technology

Design Definition 
The term “design” has many connotations. They can range from industrial designers to high structural load engineering designers. A few of these will be summarized in order to highlight that different designer skills are used to meet different product requirements. Essentially it is the process of devising a product that fulfills as completely as possible the total requirements of the user, and at the same time satisfies needs in terms of cost-effectiveness or ROI (return on investment). It encompasses the important interrelationship practical factors such as shape, material selection (including unreinforced and reinforced, elastomers, foams, etc.), consolidation of subparts, fabricating selection, and others that provide low cost-to-performance products. Product design is as much an art as a science. Recognize that a successful design is usually a compromise between the requirements of product function, productibility, and cost. Basically design is the mechanism whereby a requirement is converted to a meaningful plan. Design guidelines for plastics have existed for over a century. With plastics to a greater extent than other materials, an opportunity exists to optimize product design by focusing on material composition and orientation to structural member geometry when required. The type of designer to produce a product depends on the product requirements. As an example in most cases an engineering designer is not needed because the product has no major load requirement. All that is needed is experience and/or a logical evaluation approach based on available material and processing data. This practical approach is the least consumer of time and least expensive. 
Design Technology 
It is the prediction of performance in its broadest sense, including all the characteristics and properties of materials that are essential and relate to the processing of the plastic. To the designer, an example of a strict definition of a design property could be one that permits calculating product dimensions from a stress analysis. Such properties obviously are the most desirable upon which to base material selections. However, like with metals, there are many stresses that cannot be accurately analyzed. Hence one is forced to rely on properties that correlate with performance requirements. Where the product has critical performance requirements, such as ensuring safety to people, production prototypes will have to be exposed to the requirements it is to meet in service. In plastics, these correlative properties, together with those that can be used in design equations, generally are called engineering properties. They encompass a variety of situations over and above the basic static strength and rigidity requirements, such as impact, fatigue, flammability, chemical resistance, and temperature.

Injection Mold for the Body of a Tape Cassette

product design development
Injection Mold for the Body of a Tape-Cassette Holder Made from High-Impact Polystyrene.
Molded Part: Design and Function 
A cubic molded part of impact-resistant polystyrene forms the main body of a tape-cassette holder consisting of a number of injectionmolded parts. Several cassette holders can be stacked on top of each other by snap fits to yield a tower that can accommodate more cassettes. The molded part, which has a base measuring 162mm x 162mm and is 110mm tall, consists of a central square-section rod whose two ends are bounded by two square plates. Between these plates, and parallel to the central rod, are the walls, forming four bays for holding the cassettes. Single-Cavity Mold with Four Splits The mold, with mold fixing dimensions of 525mm x 530mm and 500mm mold height, is designed as a single-cavity mold with four mechanical splits (Fig. 3). The movable splits (9) are mounted on the ejector side of the mold with guide plates (21) and on guide bars (20). The splits form the external side walls of the molded part while the internal contours of the bay’s comprising ribs, spring latches and apertures are made by punches (34) that are fitted into the splits and bolted to them. Core (6), which is mounted along with punch (7) on platen (23), forms the bore for the square-section rod. The punch (7) and the runner plate (14) form the top and bottom sides of the molded part. When the mold is closed, the four splits are supported by the punch (7) and each other via clamping surfaces that are inclined at less than 45. Furthermore, the apertures in the molded part ensure good support between punches (34) on the splits, core (6) and runner plate (14). The closed splits brace themselves outwardly against four wedge plates (12) which are mounted on the insert plate (18) with the aid of wear plates (13). Adjusting plates (11) ensure accurate fitting of the splits. Each slide is driven by two angle pins (8), located in insert plate (18) on the feed side. Pillars (39) and bushings (37) serve to guide the mold halves. The plates of each mold half are fixed to each other with locating pins (27). The molded part is released from the core by ejector pins (25), which are mounted in the ejector plates (3, 4). Plate (23) is supported on the ejector side against the clamping plate via two rails (40) and, in the region of the ejector plates beneath the cavity, by rolls (2). Feeding via Runners The molding compound reaches the feed points in the corners of the square-section rod via sprue bushing (16) and four runners. The rod’s corners have a slightly larger flow channel than the other walls of the molded part. The sprue bushing is secured against turning by pin (15). Mold Temperature Control Cooling channels are located in the core retainer plate (22) and the insert plate (18). Punch (7) is cooled as shown in Fig. 4. Core (6) is fitted with two cooling pipes, while punch (34) is fitted with cooling pipe (35). Furthermore, the slide (9) are cooled. Demolding: Latches Spring Back As the mold opens, the slides (9) are moved by the angle pins (8) to the outside until the punches (34) are retracted from the side bays of the molded part. As Fig. 5 shows, the cavities of the spring latches Z are located on the one hand between the faces of the four punches (34) and runner plate (14) and, on the other, between the two adjacent side faces of the punches (34). On opening of the mold, the ratio of the distance moved by the slides to the opening stroke between runner plate (14) and slides is the tangent of the angle formed by the angle pins and the longitudinal axis of the mold. Thus, when the mold opens, enough space is created behind the latches Z to enable them to spring back when the punches (34) slide over the wedge-shaped elevations (a) of the latches (Fig. 5). The situation is similar for ejecting latches between adjacent punch faces. As the mold opens further, the angle pins and the guide bores in the slides can no longer come into play. The open position of the slides is secured by the ball catches (33). The molded part remains on core (6) until stop plate (29) comes into contact with the ejector stop of the machine and displaces ejector plates (3, 4) with ejector pins (24, 25). The molded part is ejected from the core, and the sprue from the runners. When the stop plates are actuated, helical springs are compressed (30) that, as the mold is closing, retract the ejector pins before the slides close. Return pins (26) and buffer pins (19) ensure that the ejector system is pushed back when the mold closes completely.

Learn Flexo Packaging Register Overprint Trapping

linearis machine printing
Learning flexo is fun, maybe for some people in Indonesia. Of course, the flexo printing technique, especially the CI type, sounds foreign. I'm only 6 years old getting to know flexo printing until this article was written, this poses a big challenge for me to know more about it. In this article I want to introduce flexo printing for those who want to learn flexo printing techniques. 
Initially Flexo printing used rubber (like a Stamp) which was then pressed to print the image. The first flexo printing machine was made in 1980 in England by Bibby Baron and Sons, at the same time the same machine was also made in Germany which is named Aniline because it uses Aniline ink.
In 1950 Franklin Moses proposed that the Aniline printing process be renamed be Flexo print.
For the next 30 years the flexo machine is still considered a printing technique for quality low so that it is generally used to print corrugated boxes. But with the discovery of UV ink and its drying, then flexo print using ink UV began to be used to print labels.
Basically the preparation for design and artwork for flexo printing is the same as artwork design work for other printing systems, but there are some differences fundamentals that we must understand. To print flexo what we see on the computer screen and what we see in the proof, may not be the same as the final flexo print.
Proof is made only to see the layout (position of the layout).
Considerations for font size, object ex and line thickness
Line object, it is recommended to be limited to no more than 1 color for color
the arrangement.
Halftone is a collection of small dots that when viewed from a distance will appear
like a stream of gray or colored smelly shadows. The number of the dots must be
enough to be boxy. For color images, there is a stack of dots
consisting of dot colors cyan, magentha, yellow and black (CMYK). The higher the screen
frequency (the more lines per inch), the smoother the image will be. For flexo
quality can be used up to 175 lpi. The defaults are 100, 120, 133, 150 and 175 lpi.
Dot is a dot (circle) that is used to form halftone printing.
The shape of the dot also varies, including round, square, elliptical and octagonal.
In general, a round pacifier is widely used.
The things that cause dot enlargement:
. Excessive ink absorption
. The ink spreads to the material because the viscosity of the ink is too high, making it difficult
. Over-pressed photopolymer (flexo must be with “kiss printing”
. Machine is not good
C. Ink
Flexo ink comparison:
1. Flexo Waterbased Ink
Excess :
- Does not require Exhaust
- Does not cause air pollution
- Excellent absorption, low energy cost for absorbent materials
- No need for explosion proof equipment
- Does not pose a problem for transportation (harmless)
Deficiency :
- If printed on plastic film, it can cause problems with sticking
as well as drying. But for modern machines this problem has been solved.
- Less shiny
- Sometimes foamy
- Cleaning is quite difficult
2. Solvent based flexo ink
Excess :
- Easy to use (set up, cleaning)
- Dries quickly
- Good adhesion to plastic film
- High mechanical resistance
- Stable surface tension
- Anilox is easy to clean (compared to using waterbased inks)
Deficiency :
- Evaporation of solvents causes pollution (harmful to health)
- Air exhaust equipment is required and must be explosion-proof
- There are regulations for the use and storage of solvents and inks
3. UV flexo ink
Excess :
- Does not require Exhaust
- The ink does not dry on the machine
- No need for explosion proof equipment
- Very glossy (glossy)
Deficiency :
- The price of ink is expensive
- Requires a high enough energy, especially if using a cooling roll
- If the temperature changes, the viscosity will also change and can
cause discoloration especially special colors.
- Some materials do not stick well.
by Su-harto

Polymer Structure Polymerization Polycondensation Polyaddition

Polymerization Polycondensation Polyaddition
Most of the advantages and disadvantages of polymers depend on the size of the structure of the individual polymer molecules, the shape and size of the polymers and how they are formed. The characteristics of a polymer molecule are determined by its size, a feature that distinguishes it from other organic chemical compositions. Polymers are long chains of molecules, also called micromolecules or giant molecules, which are formed by polymerization, in other words by the interlocking and crosslinking of different monomers. Monomers are the basic building blocks of a polymer. The word mer comes from the Greek meros meaning part, indicating the smallest unit.

Polymer means many mers or units, generally a repetition of hundreds or thousands of times a chain-like structure. Most monomers are organic materials in which the carbon atoms are joined in covalent bonds with other atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, silicon and sulfur.

To form macromolecular bonds from each thermoplastic material molecule is done in three ways, namely:

a. Polymerization:

Bringing together several similar molecules to form a large molecule Polymerisate. The monomers in polymers can be linked in repeating units that lengthen and enlarge the molecules by a chemical reaction known as a polymerization reaction. Despite the many variations, the two basic processes are Condentation polymer and Polyaddition.

b. Polycondensation;

The bonding of several molecules to form large macromolecules through the process of separating one of the atoms to bind small molecules from water. From this process, a material called Polycondensate is formed

c. Polyaddition;

Namely the union of several basic molecules through the placement of several molecules without separation of the non-fixed parts. The material formed is called "Polyadducf. In this reaction an initiator is added to break the two bonds between the carbon atoms and start the bonding process by adding more monomers to build the chain. For example the Ethylene monomer bonds to produce a polymer known as Polyethylene .

The sum of the molecular weights of the mer-mers in the polymer chain is the molecular weight of the polymer. The higher the molecular weight in a given polymer, the greater the chain length. Since polymerization is a random event, the resulting polymer chains are not all the same length, but the resulting chain lengths are formed in a traditional distribution curve. We determine and express the average molecular weight of a polymer on a statistical basis by averaging. The distribution of the molecular weight distribution is referred to as the molecular weight distribution (MWD). Molecular weight and MWD have a strong influence on polymer properties. For example, fracture and impact strength, resistance to cracking, and viscosity in the liquid state all increase with increasing molecular weight. Most of the polymers traded have molecular weights between 10,000 and 10,000,000.

In some cases, it is easier to describe the size of a polymer chain in Degrees of Polymerization (DP), defined as the ratio of the molecular weight of the polymer to the molecular weight of the repeating unit. For example, Polyvinyl chloride ( PVC) has a mer weight of 62.5, so the DP of PVC which has a molecular weight of 50,000 will be 50,000 / 62.5 = 800. In the polymerization process, the higher the DP, the greater the polymer viscosity, or flow resistance, thus making it easier to formation and overall costs.

During polymerization the monomers are bonded together in a covalent bond, forming a polymer chain. Because of their strength, covalent bonds are also called primary bonds. In addition, polymer chains hold on to secondary bonds such as van der Waals bonds, hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds. Secondary bonds are weaker than primary bonds. In a polymer, the increase in strength and viscosity with molecular weight is partly due to the fact that the longer the polymer chain, the greater the energy required for secondary bonding.

If the repeating units of the polymer chain are of the same type, we call the molecule a homopolymer. However, two or three types of heavy monomers can be combined to obtain special characteristic advantages, such as improved strength and durability. Copolymer consists of two types of polymers such as Styrene-butadine, widely used for car tires. Terpolymer consists of three types such as ABS used for helmets, telephones.