Atom Electrons Protons Neutron

electrons protons neutron
Atom is a very small unit in every material that is around us. Atom consists of three types of subatomic particles:
- electrons, which have a negative charge;
- protons, which have a positive charge;
- neutron, which is not charged.
Each element is unique differentiated by the number protons contained in the atom of these elements. Every atom has the number of electrons that are equal to the number of protons; when there is a difference in these atoms called ion.
Many other elements are created by humans, but they are usually unstable and spontaneously transformed into a naturally stable chemical element through a process of radioactivity.
Even though there are only 91 elements in nature, they can occur bonds with each other into molecules and other types of chemical compounds. Molecules are formed of many atoms. The water molecule is a combination of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 atom oxygen.
Atomic nucleus
The center of the atom is called the atomic nucleus or nucleus. The atomic nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. The number of protons in the atomic nucleus is called the atomic number, and determines its form elements what atoms are.
The size of the atomic nucleus is much smaller than the size of the atom itself, and almost partly
mostly made up of protons and neutrons, almost absolutely no contribution from electron.
Protons and neutrons have almost the same mass, and the sum of the two masses is called the mass number, and it weighs almost the same as. The mass of the electrons is very small and doesn't contribute much to the atomic mass.
The number of protons and neutrons determines the type of the nucleus or atomic nucleus. Protons and
neutrons have almost the same mass, and the number combination, the number of masses, on average
equal to the atomic mass of an atom. The combined mass of electrons is very small ratio to the mass of the nucleus, because the weight of the protons and neutrons is almost 2000 times the mass of an electron.
Neutrons or neutrons are subatomic particles which are not charged (neutral) and has a mass of 1.6749 × 10-27 kg, slightly heavier than a proton. The atomic nucleus of most atoms are made up of protons and neutrons.
The main difference between neutrons and other subatomic particles is that they are not charged. This nature of the neutrons made his discoveries more backward, and very penetrating, made it difficult to observe in person and made it very important as an agent in nuclear change.
In physics, a proton is a subatomic particle with a positive charge of 1.6 × 10-19 coulombs and a mass of 1.6726231 × 10-27 kg, or about 1800 times the mass of a electron.
An atom usually consists of a number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (middle) atom, and the number of electrons surrounding that nucleus. In charged atoms neutral, the number of protons will equal the number of electrons. The number of protons in the section the nucleus will usually determine the chemical properties of an atom. The atomic nucleus is often known as the term nuclei, nucleus, or nucleon (English: nucleon), and the reaction that occurs or related to the nucleus of this atom is called a nuclear reaction. 

Factors Affecting Product Design

Making Product Design
In making product designs, it's good that we need to know what we have to prepare in the process of making a unique and attractive product design in order to attract consumer interest.
Product design is a tool in production management starting from previous research and development.
Doing product design is not just a decoration of the product, but whether the design is able to influence our products will be accepted or not by consumers.
The importance of product design lies in determining in detail the design of the product to be made, as well as the classification so that it fits the desired objectives.
Factors that influence Product Design include:
-Product function
Each product that will be produced has a different function or use, this depends on what purposes the product is made for. Thus that product design is related to the form and function of a product. Both play an important role in determining a product design which is basically to provide maximum satisfaction for consumers or customers both in terms of quality and quantity.
-Design Standards and Specifications
In terms of specifications and design standards of a product, it will be seen from how to join the parts so that when they are put together into a strong unit
When designing the shape it is necessary to pay attention to beauty by adjusting the design according to its function and use.
Plan a balanced size of product parts as a whole.
The quality of a product must be adjusted according to the function of the product, if it is to be used for a long time, then the quality of the product must be high when compared to the product that will be used in a short period of time.
If the product to be used wants to have good quality, then the materials used must also be able to support everything that is expected to be realized and the customer feels their own satisfaction.
Color has its own meaning for consumers, because each person has a unique characteristic and preference for certain colors. And this is what the company must pay attention to in order to compete with other similar companies.
-Product responsibility
This is one of the responsibilities of the producer as a product maker to consumers for the safety and comfort of the product's user. Therefore this factor is very important to be considered by the company when designing the product.
-Price and Volume
Prices are associated with the number of products to be made, for products to be made based on orders, usually the selling price will be different from products made to be distributed to broad consumers, whose prices are relatively cheaper so that the product design will be different.
Prototype is the first product model to be made, this prototype shows the actual form and function, so that before the company produces the prototype is made an effort to make first.
From the prototype testing, if it passes the test it may provide an overview of the changes that need to be made as well as information in the final preparation of the product design.
-Factors of the Beauty of Product Design
If the packaging is beautiful and can attract the attention of consumers, consumers will be interested in buying it. For example, the marketing strategy for food products, this part of the industry is very important for displaying packaging images that can arouse appetites for consumers who see it.

Alufoil Aluminum Foil

Aluminum Foil
Aluminum Foil is an aluminum alloy made in thin sheet form. The thickness of Aluminum Foil ranges from 0.2 mm and contains about 92% to 99% Aluminum. Aluminum Foil is available in a variety of sizes and characteristics and is mainly used to package various goods. Aluminum Foil is sometimes also coated with plastic to make it stronger. Aluminum processing was first introduced by Hans Christian Oersted in 1825. Then continued by Friedrich Wöhler for resulting in more effective aluminum processing. But processing aluminum at that time was still very expensive and made the final product price aluminum is much more expensive than gold. In 1908, aluminum was produced with a thickness of 0.05mm with a rolling pack system by Alfred Gautschi. The following years aluminum production became increasingly modern, that is means that aluminum foil can be produced to be thinner and wider accordingly needs. 
The European Aluminum Foil Association provides several facts about aluminum foil. 
-Aluminum foil is a very thin sheet of aluminum (range 0.02 µm to 0.2 mm) 
-Aluminum foil is generally used for packaging and lamination as well has the advantage: 
Absolute material that can protect the contents. 
Provide quality warranty contents by protecting fragrances 
Protects contents from light, oxygen, moisture, and contamination 
-Aluminum foil saves far more resources than that consumed in production throughout the supply and value chain. With facts about aluminum foil which is very efficient as wrapping material, often aluminum foil is almost a raw material packaging coating on each product.
Use Alumunium foil in food 
When making bread, wrap it in Aluminum Foil paper to keep it warm. 
Use the Aluminum Foil paper to melt the sugar, so even desserts will taste more delicious due to the spread evenly. 
When making pies you are usually troubled by the burnt edges. But that won't happen if you base the Aluminum Foil on the baking sheet. 
When baking a cake, it is not necessary to spend a lot of money buying the molds. Just use the Aluminum Foil paper by forming it like a cone and cutting a little of the sharp part.

Cold Rolled Sheet Steel Metalworking

Cold Rolled Sheet
Cold Rolled Sheet or white iron plate is the process of making iron plate by grinding. The rolling process is carried out under the recrystallization temperature. White Iron Plate is also known, with the improvement of Black Iron Plate. Cold Rolled Sheet is a type of steel product that is produced by cold rolling, and has characteristics very different from that of 'black steel' or hot rolled steel. CRS has better surface quality and is more precise, and has good mechanical properties and excellent formability. Widely used in the ordering process because of its better formability, weldability and roughness qualities. This type of steel is also used for applications in the galvanization industry, the enamel industry, and is used as a raw material for the tin-coated food can industry. For annealed sheets, the thickness ranges from 0.20 - 3.0 mm, and the thickness is reduced to 2.0 mm. Hot Rolled Coil (HRC) or Plat (HRP) is a type of steel product that is produced by a hot rolling process. Ordinary users usually refer to this product as 'black steel' in contrast to Cold Rolled Sheet which is traditionally referred to as 'white steel'. Krakatau Steel produces ordinary carbon as well as various micro-alloy steels that can be used for general or commercial quality to special qualities such as: general steel structures, automotive frames, piles, heavy equipment components, general fabrication, general pipes & tubes, pipes & tubes for linepipes and casings, gas cylinders, weathering corrosion resistance, pressure vessels, boilers and shipbuilding. Plate sizes are 0.18 to 25 mm for thickness and widths of 600 - 2060 mm, and can be supplied as coils, plates and conditions can also be rolled or pickled and oiled (HRC-PO). Krakatau Steel has a thermomechanical heat control process and a desulphurisation process using a ladle furnace, which is essential for producing high quality hot rolled steel for special applications. Krakatau Steel manufactures coils and hot plates that are devoted to the automotive industry and require better capability, traction and better surface quality. They are used for automotive frames, wheel discs and rims, as rear, fuel tanks, oil filters, etc. Also included in this group are general drawing applications that can be used outside the automotive industry but have similar requirements, notably good weldability and drawability.
The advantages and disadvantages of White Iron Plate are:
Light and Strong. The iron body has a heavy weight, but the white iron plate has a light weight but does not reduce its strength.
Easy to customize. White iron plate is easy to form such as: bending, cutting, or welding.
The price is more expensive.
It takes longer.